List of grammatical cases
Place and time
Note: Most cases used for location and motion can be used for time as well.
|Adessive case||adjacent location||near/at/by the house||Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Lezgian | Lithuanian | Livonian | Tlingit | Tsez|
|Antessive case||anterior location||before the house||Dravidian languages|
|Apudessive case||location next to something||next to the house||Tsez|
|Inessive case||inside something||inside the house||Armenian | Basque | Erzya | Estonian | Lithuanian | Finnish | Hungarian | Ossetic | Tsez|
|Intrative case||between something||between the houses||Limbu | Quechua|
|Locative case||location||at/on/in the house||Armenian (Eastern) | Azeri | Bengali | Belarusian | Bosnian | Chuvash | Croatian | Czech | Hungarian (only for some traditional town names) | Inari Sami | Inuktitut | Japanese | Kashmiri | Latin (restricted) | Latvian | Lithuanian | Manchu | Northern Sami | Polish | Quechua | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Skolt Sami | Slovak | Slovene | Sorbian | Tamil | Telugu | Tlingit | Turkish | Ukrainian | Uzbek |
(Note: the case in Slavic languages termed the "locative case" in English is actually a prepositional case.)
|Pertingent case||in contact with something||touching the house||Tlingit | Archi|
|Postessive case||posterior location||behind the house||Lezgian | Agul|
|Subessive case||under something||under/below the house||Tsez|
|Superessive case||on the surface||on (top of) the house||Hungarian | Ossetic | Tsez | Finnish|
|Ablative case||movement away from something||away from the house||Albanian | Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Azeri | Chuvash | Erzya | Estonian | Evenki | Finnish | Hungarian | Inuktitut | Japanese | Latin | Manchu | Ossetic | Quechua | Tamil | Sanskrit | Tibetan | Tlingit | Tsez | Turkish | Uzbek | Yukaghir|
|Adelative case||movement from somewhere near||from near the house||Lezgian|
|Delative case||movement from the surface||from (the top of) the house||Hungarian | Finnish|
|Egressive case||marking the beginning of a movement or time||beginning from the house||Udmurt|
|Elative case||out of something||out of the house||Erzya | Estonian | Evenki | Finnish | Hungarian|
|Initiative case||starting point of an action||beginning from the house||Manchu|
|Postelative case||movement from behind||from behind the house||Lezgian|
|Allative case||in Hungarian and in Finnish:
movement to (the adjacency of) something
in Estonian and in Finnish:
movement onto something
|to the house
onto the house
|Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Inuktitut | Japanese | Kashmiri | Lithuanian | Manchu | Tamil | Tlingit | Tsez | Turkish | Tuvan | Uzbek|
|Illative case||movement into something||into the house||Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Inari Sami | Lithuanian | Northern Sami | Skolt Sami | Tamil | Tsez | Esperanto|
|Lative case||movement to something||to/into the house||Erzya | Finnish | Quechua | Tsez | Turkish | German | Esperanto|
|Sublative case||movement onto the surface or below something||on(to) the house / under the house||Hungarian | Tsez | Finnish|
|Superlative case||movement over or onto the top of something||on(to) the house / on top of the house||Northeast Caucasian languages: Bezhta | Hinuq | Tsez|
|Terminative case||marking the end of a movement or time||as far as the house||Chuvash | Estonian | Hungarian | Japanese | Manchu | Quechua|
|Perlative case||movement through or along||through/along the house||Evenki | Tocharian A & B | Warlpiri | Yankunytjatjara|
|Prolative case (= prosecutive case, vialis case)||movement using a surface or way||by way of/through the house||Erzya | Estonian (rare) | Finnish (rare) | Tlingit | Greenlandic | Inuktitut|
|Ablative case||specifying a time when and within which||E.g.: eō tempore, "at that time"; paucīs hōrīs, "within a few hours".||Latin | Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Finnish|
|Accusative case||indicating duration of time
known as the accusative of duration of time
|E.g.: multos annos, "for many years";
ducentos annos, "for 200 years."
|Latin | German | Esperanto | Serbian ||
|Essive case||used for specifying days and dates when something happens||E.g.: maanantaina, "on Monday";
kuudentena joulukuuta, "on the 6th of December".
|Finnish | Estonian|
|Limitative case||specifying a deadline||E.g.: 午後5時半までに (Gogo go-ji han made-ni) "by 5:30 PM"||Japanese|
|Temporal case||specifying a time||E.g.: hétkor "at seven" or hét órakor "at seven o'clock"; éjfélkor "at midnight"; karácsonykor "at Christmas".||Hungarian | Finnish (rare)|
Chart for review for the basic cases
For meanings of the terms agent, patient, experiencer, and instrument, see thematic relation.
|Absolutive case (1)||patient, experiencer; subject of an intransitive verb and direct object of a transitive verb||he pushed the door and it opened||Basque | Tibetan|
|Absolutive case (2)||patient, involuntary experiencer||he pushed the door and it opened; he slipped||active languages|
|Absolutive case (3)||patient; experiencer; instrument||he pushed the door with his hand and it opened||Inuktitut|
|Accusative case (1)||patient||he pushed the door and it opened||Akkadian | Albanian | Arabic | Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Azeri | Bosnian | Croatian | Czech | Erzya | Esperanto | Faroese | Finnish | German | Greek | Hungarian | Icelandic | Inari Sami | Japanese | Latin | Latvian | Lithuanian | Northern Sami | Polish | Romanian | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Skolt Sami | Slovak | Slovene | Ukrainian | Georgian|
|Accusative case (2)||direct object of a transitive verb; made from; about; for a time||I see her||Inuktitut | Persian | Turkish | Serbo-Croatian|
|Agentive case||agent, specifies or asks about who or what; specific agent that is subset of a general topic or subject||it was she who committed the crime; as for him, his head hurts||Japanese|
|Ergative case||agent; subject of a transitive verb||he pushed the door and it opened||Basque | Chechen | Dyirbal | Georgian | Kashmiri | Samoan | Tibetan | Tlingit | Tsez|
|Ergative-genitive case||agent, possession||he pushed the door and it opened; her dog||Classic Maya | Inuktitut|
|Instructive||means, answers question how?||by means of the house||Estonian (rare) | Finnish|
|Instrumental||instrument, answers question using which thing?||with the house||Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Belarusian | Bosnian | Croatian | Czech | Evenki | Georgian | Japanese | Kashmiri | Latvian | Lithuanian | Manchu | Polish | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Slovak | Slovene | Tsez | Ukrainian | Yukaghir|
|Instrumental-comitative case||instrument, in company of something||with the house||Chuvash | Hungarian | Tlingit|
|Nominative case (1)||agent, experiencer; subject of a transitive or intransitive verb||he pushed the door and it opened||nominative–accusative languages (including marked nominative languages)|
|Nominative case (2)||agent; voluntary experiencer||he pushed the door and it opened; she paused||active languages|
|Objective case (1)||direct or indirect object of verb||I saw her; I gave her the book.||Bengali | Chuvash|
|Objective/Oblique (2)||direct or indirect object of verb or object of preposition; a catch-all case for any situation except nominative or genitive||I saw her; I gave her the book; with her.||English | Swedish | Danish | Norwegian | Bulgarian|
|Oblique case||all-round case; any situation except nominative or vocative||concerning the house||Anglo-Norman | Hindi | Old French | Old Provençal | Telugu | Tibetan|
|Intransitive case (also called passive or patient case)||the subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb||The door opened||languages of the Caucasus | Ainu|
|Pegative case||agent in a clause with a dative argument||he gave the book to him||Azoyú Tlapanec|
|Partitive case||used for amounts||three (of the) houses||Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami | Russian | Skolt Sami|
|Prepositional case||when certain prepositions precede the noun||in/on/about the house||Belarusian† | Czech† | Polish† | Russian | Scottish Gaelic‡ | Slovak† | Ukrainian†
^† This case is called lokál in Czech and Slovak, miejscownik in Polish, місцевий (miscevý) in Ukrainian and месны (miesny) in Belarusian; these names imply that this case also covers Locative case.
|Vocative case||used for addressing someone, with or without a preposition||Hey, father!
|Albanian (rare) | Belarusian (rare) | Bulgarian | Bosnian | Croatian | Czech | Georgian | Greek | Hindi | Irish | Itelmen | Kashmiri | Ket | Latin | Latvian | Lithuanian | Macedonian | Nivkh | Polish | Romanian | Russian (rare) | Sanskrit | Scottish Gaelic | Serbian | Slovak | Telugu | Ukrainian | Nahuatl|
|Abessive case||the lack of something||without the house||Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami | Skolt Sami | Quechua|
|Adverbial case||being as something||as a house||Georgian | Udmurt | Finnic languages | Abkhaz|
|Comparative case||similarity with something||similar to the house||Dumi | Mari | Nivkh|
|Equative case||comparison with something||like the house||Ossetic | Sumerian | Tlingit | Tsez|
|Essive case||temporary state of being||as the house||Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami | Inuktitut | Middle Egyptian | Northern Sami | Skolt Sami | Tsez|
|Essive-formal case||marking a condition as a quality (a kind of shape)||as a house||Hungarian | Manchu|
|Essive-modal case||marking a condition as a quality (a way of being)||as a house||Hungarian|
|Exessive case||marking a transition from a condition||from being a house (i.e., "it stops being a house")||Estonian (rare) | Finnish (dialectal)|
|Formal case||marking a condition as a quality||as a house||Hungarian|
|Identical case||showing that something is identical||being the house||Manchu|
|Orientative case||oriented towards something||turned towards the house||Chukchi | Manchu|
|Revertive case||backwards to something||against the house||Manchu|
|Translative case||change of a condition into another||(turning) into a house||Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Khanty | Manchu|
This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2009)
- Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish Grammar - Exterior local cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- S. Agesthialingom, Prakya Sreesaila Subrahmanyam, Dravidian Linguistics- V: (proceedings of the Seminar on Dravidian Linguistics- V), Page 275, 1976 - 582 pages, Google book search link quote: "(6) 'before' (antessive), (7) 'behind, ..."
- Robert, Stéphane Robert (1999). Language Diversity and Cognitive Representations. p. 229. ISBN 978-9027223555.
- Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish Grammar - Interior Local Cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- Takahashi, Tarou; et al. (2010). A Japanese Grammar (in Japanese) (4 ed.). Japan: Hitsuji Shobou. p. 27. ISBN 978-4-89476-244-2.
- Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish grammar - adverbial cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish Grammar - Means Cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- Behrang QasemiZadeh, Saeed Rahimi, Persian in MULTEXT-East Framework, 5th International Conference on NLP, FinTAL 2006 Turku, Finland, August 23–25, 2006 Proceedings
- Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish Grammar - General Local Cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 6 March 2015.