List of state leaders in the 17th century

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Lists of state leaders by century:
See also:
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

This is a list of state leaders in the 17th century (1601–1700) AD, except for the leaders within the Holy Roman Empire, and the leaders within South Asia.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 17th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Africa[edit]

Africa: Central[edit]

Angola

  • Kalanda ka Imbe, King (c.1600s)
  • Kulashingo, King (c.1610–1616)
  • Kasanje ka Kulashingo, King (c.1616–1620s)
  • Kalunga ka Kilombo, King (c.1630s–1650)
  • Ngongo a Mbande, King (c.1650–1680)
  • Dom. Pascoal Machado, King (1680)
  • Kingwangwa kya Kima, King (c.1680–1681)
  • Kitamba kya Keta, King (1681–1690)
  • Mwanya a Kasanje, King (c.1690s)
  • Kiluanje kya Ngonga, King (c.1690s–1700s)
Kwilu dynasty
Kinkanga dynasty
Kwilu dynasty
Kimpanzu dynasty
Kinlaza dynasty
Civil War: Awenekongo
Colony, 1575–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

Chad

  • ‘Abdallah, Mbangi (1568–1608)
  • ‘Umar (1608–1625)
  • Dalai, Mbangi (1625–1635)
  • Burkomanda I, Mbangi (1635–1665)
  • ‘Abdul Rahman I, Mbangi (1665–1674)
  • Dalo Birni, Mbangi (1674–1680)
  • ‘Abdul Qadir I, Mbangi (1680–1707)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

  • Shamba Bolongongo, Nyim (c.1600)
  • Bongo Lenge, Nyim (17th century)
  • Golo Bosh, Nyim (17th century)
  • Boni Bosh, Nyim (17th century)
  • Kongo Kama Bomanchala, Nyim (17th century)
  • Bo Kama Bomanchala, Nyim (c.1680)
  • Golo Boke, Nyim (late 17th century)
  • Bokere Boke, Nyim (late 17th century)
  • KotomBoke, Nyim (17th or 18th century)

Congo, Republic of the

Gabon

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: East[edit]

Great Lakes area

Burundi
  • Ntare I Rushatsi Cambarantama, King (c.1530–c.1550)
  • Mwezi I Baridamunka, King (c.1550–c.1580)
  • Mutaga I Mutabazi, King (c.1580–c.1600)
  • Mwambutsa I Nkomati, King (c.1600–c.1620)
  • Ntare II Kibogora, King (c.1620–c.1650)
  • Mwezi II Nyaburunga, King (c.1650–c.1680)
  • Ntare I, King (c.1680–c.1709)
Kenya
Rwanda

South Sudan

  • Odaagø Ocøllø, Rädh (c.1600–1635)
  • Dhokoth, Rädh (c.1670–1690)
  • Tugø, Rädh (c.1690–1710)
Uganda

Horn of Africa area

Ethiopia
  • ʿAli ibn Dā'ūd, Emīr (1647–1662)
  • Hāshim ibn ʿAli, Emīr (1662–1671)
  • ʿAbdullah ibn ʿAli, Emīr (1671–1700)
  • Ṭalḥa ibn ʿAbdullah, Emīr (1700–1721)
  • Bong-he or Borrete or Bongatato, King (1565–1605)
  • Giba Nekiok or Bonge or Galo Nechocho, King (1605–1640)
  • Gali Gafocho or Gali Ginok, King (1640–1675)
  • Gali Ginocho or Tan Ginok, King (1675–1710)
Somalia
  • Garaad Abdale, Sultan (1585–1612)
  • Garaad Ali, Sultan (1612–1655)
  • Garaad Mohamud IV, Sultan (1655–1675)
  • Garaad Naleye, Sultan (1675–1705)

Indian Ocean

Comoros

Madagascar

  • Andriamandisoarivo (Tsimanata), King (c.1690–1720)

Africa: Northcentral[edit]

Tunisia

Africa: Northeast[edit]

Egypt

Sudan

Africa: Northwest[edit]

Algeria

Vassal state, 1671–1830
Pashas without power, 1700–1711

Morocco

Succession war: 1603–1627

Africa: South[edit]

Angola

under Portuguese vassalage
of Ndongo-Matamba;
of the state of Pungo a Ndongo;

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

South Africa

Company rule of the Dutch East India Company, 1652–1795; British occupation, 1795–1803
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Zimbabwe

becomes a Portuguese vassal (1629)
becomes a Rozwi Vassal (1663)
returns to Portuguese vassalage (1694)
  • Changamire Tumbare, King (1530–c.1660)
  • Changamire Dombo, King (c.1660–1695)
  • Changamire Zharare, King (c.1695–c.1700)
  • Changamire Negamo, King (c.1700–1710)

Africa: West[edit]

Benin

  • Ehengbuda, Oba (1580–1602)[9]
  • Ohuan, Oba (1602–1656)
  • Ohenzae, Oba (1656–1661)
  • Akenzae, Oba (1661–1669)
  • Akengboi, Oba (1669–1675)
  • Akenkpaye, Oba (1675–1684)
  • Akengbedo, Oba (1684–1689)
  • Ore-Oghene, Oba (1689–1701)

Burkina Faso

  • Kampadiboaghi, Nunbado (1571–1615)
  • Kampadi, Nunbado (1615–1659)
  • Tantiari, Nunbado (1659–1684)
  • Lissoangui, Nunbado (1684–1709)

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ghana

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Mali

Niger

  • al-Mustafa, Askiya (c.1600)
  • Muhammad Sorko-ije, Askiya (early 17th century)
  • Harun Dankataya, Askiya (early 17th century)
  • al-Amin, Askiya (1611–1618)[10]
  • Dawud II, Askiya (1618–1639)[11]
  • Ismail, Askiya (c.1639)
  • Muhammad, Askiya (1639)
  • Dawud III, Askiya (1639–?)
  • Muhammad Borgo, Askiya (early 17th century)
  • Mar-Chindin, Askiya (early 17th century)
  • Nuh II, Askiya (early 17th century)
  • Muhammad Al-Borko, Askiya (early 17th century)
  • Al-Hajj, Askiya (mid 17th century)
  • Ismail, Askiya (mid 17th century)
  • Dawud III, Askiya (c.1655)

Nigeria

  • Abipa, Alaafin (c.1600–?)
  • Obalokun, Alaafin (17th century)
  • Oluodo, Alaafin (17th century)
  • Ajagbo, Alaafin (17th century)
  • Odarawu, Alaafin (17th century)
  • Kanran, Alaafin (17th century)
  • Jayin, Alaafin (17th century or 18th century)

Senegal

  • Lat Sukabe, Damel (1697–1719)

Sierra Leone

  • Naimbanna I, Bai (1680–1720)

Americas[edit]

Americas: Caribbean[edit]

Antigua

British colony, 1632–1981
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

The Bahamas

British colony, 1648–1973
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Barbados

British colony, 1625–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Cuba

Spanish Colony, 1607–1898
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Haiti

French Colony, 1625–1804
For details see France in western Europe

Netherlands

Dutch colony 1634–1828, 1845–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Americas: Central[edit]

Guatemala

Spanish Colony, 1609–1821
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Nicaragua

Americas: North[edit]

Canada

French colony, 1535–1763
For details see France under western Europe
British colony, 1610–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mexico

Spanish Colony, 1521–1821
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Americas: South[edit]

Brazil

Portuguese colony, 1500/1534–1808
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Chile

Spanish Colony, 1541–1818
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Peru

Spanish Colony, 1542–1824
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Suriname

English/ British colony, 1650–1667
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Dutch colony 1667–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Asia[edit]

Asia: Central[edit]

Kazakhstan

Mongolia

Tajikistan

Tibet

Uzbekistan

  • Haji Muhammad I, Khan (1558–1602)
  • Arab Muhammad I, Khan (1602–1623)
  • Isfandiyar, Khan (1623–1643)
  • Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur, Khan (1643–1663)
  • Anusha, Khan (1663–1685)
  • unnamed, Khan (1685–1714)
  • Khudaydad, Khan (1685–1687)
  • Muhammad Awrang I, Khan (1687–1694)
  • Chuchaq, Khan (1694–1697)
  • Vali, Khan (1697–1698)
  • Ishaq Agha Shah Niyaz, Khan (1698–1701)
  • Kho Orluk, Khan (1633–1644)
  • Shukhur Daichin, Khan (1644–1661)
  • Puntsug, Khan (1661–1672)
  • Ayuka, Khan (1672–1723)

Asia: East[edit]

China

China: Taiwan

Dutch colony 1624–1668
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe
  • Kamachat Aslamie, King, (?–1648)
  • Kamachat Maloe, King, (1648–?)
Spanish Colony, 1626–1642
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Japan

Tributary state of the Ming dynasty, 1429–1644
Vassal state of Satsuma Domain, 1609–1872

Korea

Mongolia

Asia: Southeast[edit]

Brunei

Cambodia

Indonesia

Indonesia: Java
  • Pangeran Ratu, Sultan (1596–1651)[21]
  • Abu’lma’ali Ahmad, Sultan (1638–c.1650)
  • Ageng Tirtayasa, Sultan (1651–1683)
  • Abu an-Nasr, Sultan (1682–1687)
  • Abdul Fadhl, Sultan (1687–1690)
  • Abdul Mahasin Muhammad Zainulabidin, Sultan (1690–1733)
  • Panembahan Ratu, Sultan (c.1570–1649)
  • Panembahan Girilaya, Sultan (c.1650–1662)
Split into the Kraton Kasepuhan, Kraton Kanoman, Kraton Kacirebonan, Panembahan Cirebon lines
  • Pangeran Arya Cirebon, Kamaruddin, Sultan (1697–1723)
  • Mas Karian, King (?–1632)
  • Sunan Tawang Alun I, King (1633–1639)
  • Tawang Alun II, King (1665–1691)
  • Pangeran Pati, King (1691)
  • Sasranegara, Co-King (1691–1692)
  • Mancanapura, King (1691–1697)
  • Pangeran Putr, King (1697–1736)
  • Sunan Prapen, Sultan (1548–1605)
  • Panembahan Kawis Gua, Sultan (1605–1621)
  • Panembahan Agung, Sultan (1621–1626)
  • Panembahan Mas Witana, Sultan (1626–1680)
  • Adipati Pekik, King (?–1614)[22]
  • Ki Gede Kapulungan, Regent (c.1614–1616/17)
  • Surapati, Wiranegara I, Sultan (1686–1706)
  • Panembahan Rama, Adipati (16th/17th century)
  • Pangeran Surabaya, Adipati (16th/17th century)
  • Pangeran Sunjaya, Adipati (17th century)
  • Raden Jayalengkara, Adipati (?–1625)
  • Arya Salempe, King (16th/17th century)
  • Pangeran Dalem, King (?–1619)
  • Sepuh I Syamsuddin, Sultan (1662–1697)[23]
  • Sepuh II Jamaluddin, Sultan (1697–1723)
  • Anom I Badruddin, Sultan (1662–1703)[23]
  • Panembahan Cirebon I Muhammad Nasruddin, Sultan (1662–1714)[23]
  • Pangeran Arya Cirebon, Kamaruddin, Sultan (1697–1723)[23]
  • Raden Kara, Sultan (1592/6–1621)[24]
  • Pangeran Mas, Sultan (1621–1624)
  • Cakraningrat I, Sultan (1624–1648)
  • Raden Demang Malaya Kusuma, Regent (1648–1656)
  • Cakraningrat II, Sultan (1648–1707)
  • Pangeran Wetan, Sultan (c.1600)[25]
  • Pangeran Ellor II, Sultan (?–1624)
  • Kyai Mas Anggadipa, Sultan (1624–?)
  • Arya Yang Pati, Sultan (?–1671)
  • Yudanegara, Sultan (1671–1684)
  • Pulang Jiwa, Sultan (1684–1702)
  • Adikara I, Sultan (1685–1708)[26]
Indonesia: Sumatra
  • Panglima Dewa Sakti, Raja (1580–1612)
  • Kahar bin Panglima Dewa Sakdi, Raja (1612–1673)
  • Bendahara Raja Badiuzzaman, Raja (1673–1750)
  • Jambi Sultanate
    Hilir Jambi, Sultan (1687–1696)
    Sultan Sri Maharaja Batu, Sultan (1690–1721)
Indonesia: Kalimantan (Borneo)
  • Mustain Billah, Sultan (1595–1638)
  • Inayatullah bin Mustainbillah, Sultan (1642–1647)
  • Saidullah, Sultan (1647–1660)
  • Ri'ayatullah, Sultan (1660–1663)
  • Amrullah Bagus Kasuma, Sultan (1663–1679)
  • Agung/Pangeran Suryanata II, Sultan (1663–1679)
  • Amrullah Bagus Kasuma, Sultan (1679–1700)
  • Tahmidullah I, Sultan (1700–1717)
  • Kelana, Putera Singa Laut, Wira (1618–1640)
  • Keranda, Putera Wira Kelana, Wira (1640–1695)
  • Digendung, putra Wira Keranda, Wira (1695–1731)
  • Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji Mendapa, Sultan (c.1635–1650)
  • Timbang Paseban, Governor, Sultan (1600–1609)
  • Sepudak, King (1609–1632)
  • Anom Kesumayuda, King (1632–1670)
  • Muhammad Shafi ud-din I, Sultan (1675–1685)
  • Muhammad Taj ud-din I, Sultan (1685–1708)
  • Abang Pencin Pontin, Prince (c.1600–1643)
  • Tunggal, Prince (c.1643–1672)
  • Sri Paduka Muhammad Shams ud-din Sa'id ul-Khairiwaddien Sultan Nata, Sultan (1672–1738)
Indonesia: Sulawesi
  • Alau'ddin, Sultan (1593–1639)
  • Malikussaid (Muhammad Said), Sultan (1639–1653)
  • Hasanuddin, Sultan (1653–1669)
  • Amir Hamzah, Sultan (1669–1674)
  • Muhammad Ali (Karaeng Bisei), Sultan (1674–1677)
  • Abdul Jalil, Sultan (1677–1709)
  • Andi Pattiware’ Daeng Parabung, Datu (1587–1615)
  • Patipasaung, Datu (1615–1637)
  • La Basso, Datu (1637–1663)
  • Settiaraja, Datu (1663–1704)
  • Petta Matinroe’ ri Polka, Datu (1660s)
Indonesia: Lesser Sunda Islands
  • Ola Adobala, Raja (c.1665)
  • Luis, Raja (c.1675)
  • Abdul Kahir, Sultan (c.1620–1640)
  • Ambela Abu'l-Khair Sirajuddin, Sultan (1640–1682)
  • Nuruddin Abubakar Ali Syah, Sultan (1682–1687)
  • Jamaluddin Ali Syah, Sultan (1687–1696)
  • Hasanuddin Muhammad Ali Syah, Sultan (1697–1731)
Indonesia: West Timor
  • Pedro of Batumean, Raja (c.1642)
  • João of Batumean, Raja (c.1645)
  • Dom António I, Raja (?–1665)[citation needed]
  • Dom Tomás, Raja (1665–?)
  • Dom António II, Raja (c.1688)
  • Sebastião, Raja (c.1652)
  • Saroro Neno, Raja (c.1655)
  • Ama Kefi Meu, Raja (1666–1704)
  • Ama Tuan/ Ama Utang, Emperor (c.1650–c.1680)[27]
  • Ama Tuan II, Raja (1659–1672)[27]
  • Bi Sonbai/ Usi Tetu Utang, Queen (1672–1717)
Indonesia: Maluku Islands
  • Alauddin I, Sultan (1581–c.1609)[28]
  • Nurusalat, Sultan (c.1609–1649)
  • Muhammad Ali, Sultan (1649–1660)
Dutch protectorate 1667–1942
  • Alauddin II, Sultan (1660–1706)
  • Kodrat, Sultan (?–c.1605)[29]
  • Dua, Sultan (c.1605–1613)
  • Raja Buka, Sultan (1613–1656)
  • Kaicil Alam, Sultan (c.1679–1684)
  • Mole Majimu, Sultan (1599–1627)[30]
  • Ngarolamo, Sultan (1627–1634)
  • Gorontalo, Sultan (1634–1639)
  • Saidi, Sultan (1640–1657)
  • Saifuddin, Golofino, Sultan (1657–1689)
Dutch protectorate 1657–1905
  • Hamza Faharuddin, Sultan (1689–1705)
  • Said Barakat Shah, Sultan (1583–1606)[citation needed]
  • Muzaffar Shah I, Sultan (1607–1627)
  • Hamzah, Sultan (1627–1648)
  • Mandar Shah/ Manlarsaha, Sultan (1648–1650)
  • Manilha, Sultan (1650–1655)
  • Mandar Shah, Sultan (1655–1675)
Dutch protectorate 1683–1915
  • Sibori, Sultan (1675–1689)
  • Said Fathullah, Sultan (1689–1714)

Laos

Malaysia

Malaysia: Peninsula
Malacca dynasty
  • Alauddin Riayat Shah I, Sultan (1594–1603)
  • Mukaddam Riayat Shah I, Sultan (1603–1619)
  • Ahmad Mansur Riayat Shah II, Sultan (1619–1627)
  • Mahmud Riayat Shah I, Sultan (1627–1630)
  • Sallehuddin Riayat Shah, Sultan (1630–1636)
Siak dynasty
  • Muzaffar Riayat Shah II, Sultan (1636–1653)
  • Mahmud Iskandar Shah, Sultan (1653–1720)
Malaysian Borneo

Myanmar / Burma

Philippines

  • Kapitan Laut Buisan, Sultan (1597–1619)
  • Muhammad Kudarat, Sultan of Maguindanao (1619–1671), Sultan of Sulu as Nasir ud-Din II (1645–1648)
  • Barahaman, Sultan (c.1678–1699)
  • Kahar Ud-din Kuda, Sultan (?–1702)
Colony, 1565–1901
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Taiwan

Thailand

Sukhothai dynasty
Prasat Thong dynasty
Ban Phlu Luang dynasty
Inland dynasty
First Kelantanese dynasty
  • Bakal, Raja (1688–1690 or 1651–1670)
  • Emas Kelantan, Raja (1690–1704 or 1670–1698)
  • Emas Chayam, Queen (1704–1707 or 1698–1702 and 1716–1718)

Vietnam

  • Po Ro Me, King (1627–1651)
  • Po Niga, King (1652–1660)
  • Po Saut, King (1660–1692)
  • Po Saktirai da putih, King (1695–1728)

Asia: South[edit]

Asia: West[edit]

Iran

Oman

Saudi Arabia

Turkey

Yemen

  • Salih ibn Nasir al-Wahidi, Sultan (c.1640–1670)
  • al-Hadi ibn Salih al-Wahidi, Sultan (c.1670–1706)
  • Muqbil, Amir (1680–?)
  • Hasan, Amir (?)
  • Dscha'far ibn 'Abdallah al-Kathir, Sultan (1670–1690)
  • Badr ibn Dscha'far al-Kathir, Sultan (1690–1707)
  • Afif, ruler (1681–1700)
  • Qahtan ibn Afif, ruler (1700–1720)

Europe[edit]

Europe: Balkans[edit]

  • Ruvim II, Prince-bishop (1593–1636)
  • Mardarije I, Prince-bishop (1639–1649)
  • Visarion I, Prince-bishop (1649–1659)
  • Mardarije II, Prince-bishop (1659–1673)
  • Ruvim III, Prince-bishop (1673–1685)
  • Vasilije II, Prince-bishop (1685)
  • Visarion II, Prince-bishop (1685–1692)
  • Sava Očinić, Prince-bishop (1694–1696)
  • Danilo I, Prince-bishop (1696–1735)

Croatia

part of the Habsburg Monarchy, also part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown
House of Habsburg

Europe: British Isles[edit]

  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England and Ireland (1558–1603)
  • James VI, King of Scotland (1567–1625), King of England and Ireland (1603–1625)
  • Charles I, King (1625–1649)
  • Charles II, King of Scotland (1649–1651, 1660–1685), King of England and Ireland (1660–1685)
  • James VII, King (1685–1688)
  • Mary II, Queen co-regnant (1689–1694) and William II, King co-regnant (1689–1702)

Ireland

  • Edmond, ruler (1596–1601)
  • Owen, ruler (1601–1609)
  • Tadhg Ó Ruairc, Lord (1600–1605)

Europe: Central[edit]

  • Rudolph II, Emperor Elect (1576–1612), King (1575–1612)
  • Matthias, Emperor Elect (1612–1619), King (1612–1618)
  • Ferdinand II, Emperor Elect (1619–1637), King (1618–1637)
  • Ferdinand III, Emperor Elect (1637–1657), King (1636–1657)
  • Ferdinand IV, co-King (1653–1654)
  • Leopold I, Emperor Elect, King (1658–1705)

Austria

Habsburg monarchs ruled under numerous simultaneous titles

Hungary

Poland

Europe: East[edit]

Europe: Nordic[edit]

Denmark–Norway

Sweden

  • Charles IX, Regent (1599–1604), King (1604–1611)

Europe: Southcentral[edit]

Southern Italy

The Kingdom of Naples was ruled in personal union with Spain from 1504 to 1713.

Malta

Europe: Southwest[edit]

Andorra

  • Andreu Capella, Episcopal Co-Prince (1588–1609)
  • Bernat de Salba i Salba, Episcopal Co-Prince (1609–1620)
  • Luis Díez de Aux y Armendáriz, Episcopal Co-Prince (1622–1627)
  • Antonio Pérez, Episcopal Co-Prince (1627–1632)[62]
  • Pau Duran, Episcopal Co-Prince (1634–1651)
  • Juan Manuel de Espinosa, Episcopal Co-Prince (1655–1663)
  • Melcior Palau i Bosca, Episcopal Co-Prince (1664–1670)
  • Pere de Copons i Teixidor, Episcopal Co-Prince (1671–1681)
  • Joan Baptista Desbac i Mortorell, Episcopal Co-Prince (1682–1688)
  • Oleguer de Montserrat i Rufet, Episcopal Co-Prince (1689–1694)
  • Julià Cano Thebar, Episcopal Co-Prince (1695–1714)

Catalonia

Navarre

Portugal

Spain

Europe: West[edit]

France

Low Countries

For the preceding rulers, look under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the County of Drenthe under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the Lordship of Frisia under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the Lordship of Groningen under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the Duchy of Guelders under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, look under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire
For the preceding rulers, see the Lordship of Overijssel under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire

Eurasia: Caucasus[edit]

Azerbaijan

  • Heydar Qoli, Khan (1747–1787)
  • Kalbali, Khan (1787–1823)
  • Huseyn Ali, Khan (1680–1721)
  • Ahmad, Khan (1721)
  • Chulaq Surkhay, Khan (1721–1722)
  • Husayn Ali, Khan (1722–1758)
  • Fatali, Khan (1758–1789)
  • Ahmad, Khan (1789–1791)
  • Shaykh Ali Agha, Khan (1791–1806)
  • Najaf Qoli I, Khan (1731–1785)
  • Khodadad, Khan (1785–1787)
  • Hossein Qoli, Khan (1786–1793, 1797–1798)
  • Jafar Qoli Donboli, Khan (1786–1802)

Georgia

  • Putu, Prince (c.1580–1620)
  • Seteman, Prince (c.1620–1640)
  • Sustar, Prince (c.1640–1665)
  • Zegnak, Prince (c.1665–1700)
  • Alexander II (Ottoman vassal after 1578), King (1574–1602, 1602–1605)
  • David I, King (1602)
  • Alexander II (restored), King (1602–1605)
  • Constantine I, King (1605)
  • Teimuraz I, King (1605–1614, 1615, 1625–1633, 1634–1648)
direct Persian rule (1614–1615, 1616–1625, 1633, 1648–1664, 1676–1703)

Russia: Dagestan

  • Surkhay ibn Garai-Bek, Khan (1700–1741)
  • Murtazali ibn Surkhay, Khan (1741–1743)
  • Muhammad ibn Surkhay, Khan (1743–1789)
  • Surkhay ibn Muhammad, Khan (1789–1820)

Oceania[edit]

Chile: Easter Island

  • Marama Ariki, King (c.1600)
  • Riu Tupa Hotu (Nui Tupa Hotu?), King (?)
  • Toko Te Rangi, King (?)
  • Kao Aroaro (Re Kauu?), King (?)
  • Mataivi, King (?)
  • Kao Hoto, King (?)

French Polynesia

  • Takumasiva, King (17th century)
  • Pou, King (17th century)
  • Tuakalau, King (17th century)
  • Eiki, King (17th century)
  • Tuiuvea, King (17th century)
  • Lilo-kaivale, King (17th century)

Tonga

  • Moʻunga ʻo Tonga, King (?)
  • Fotofili, King (fl.1643)
  • Vaea, King (?)
  • Moeakiola, King (?)
  • Tatafu, King (?)

United States: Hawaii

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joyce (M.A.) & Torday (E.), Notes ethnographiques sur les peuples communément appelés Bakuba, ainsi que sur les peuplades apparentées, les Bushongo. Bruxelles 1910; page 17-19
  2. ^ Information about pre-Oromo kings from Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia), (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), pp. 28–30.
  3. ^ a b Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia) (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), p. 64.
  4. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lvi. Amnon Orent, "Refocusing on the History of Kafa prior to 1897: A Discussion of Political Processes" in African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1970), p. 268.
  5. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), pp. lxv – lxvii.
  6. ^ Njoku, Raphael. The History of Somalia.
  7. ^ MacMichael, H. A. (1922). "Appendix I: The Chronology of the Fung Kings". A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People Who Preceded Them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Dárfūr. Volume II. Cambridge University Press. p. 431. OCLC 264942362. |volume= has extra text (help)
  8. ^ Holt, Peter Malcolm (1999). "Genealogical Tables and King-Lists". The Sudan of the Three Niles: The Funj Chronicle 910–1288 / 1504–1871. Islamic History and Civilization, 26. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 182–186. ISBN 978-90-04-11256-8.
  9. ^ Ben-Amos (1995). The Art of Benin Revised Edition. p. 32.
  10. ^ The Tarikh al-Sudan states that al-Amin ruled for 7 years. The date of 1618 for the death of al-Amin and the succession of Askia Dawud II is mentioned in the Tarikh al-Sudan es-Sadi 1898–1900, p. 341
  11. ^ The Tarikh al-Sudan states that Dawud II ruled for 22 years.
  12. ^ Dates calculated on the basis of Lange, Diwan, 80-94.
  13. ^ Aimiuwu, O.E.I. Ashipa: the first Oba of Lagos. Nigeria Magazine, Issues 100–104, Government of Nigeria 1969. pp. 624–627. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  14. ^ Slavery and the Birth of an African City. p. 29.
  15. ^ L. Petech (1980), 'Ya-ts'e, Gu-ge, Pu-rang: A new study', The Central Asiatic Journal 24, pp. 85–111; R. Vitali (1996), The kingdoms of Gu.ge Pu.hrang. Dharamsala: Tho.ling gtsug.lag.khang.
  16. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls. [Rome 1949; Giuseppe Tucci, Deb T'er Dmar Po Gsarma. Rome 1971; Per K. Sørensen & Guntram Hazod, Rulers on the Celestial Plain. Wien 2007; Olaf Czaja, Medieval rule in Tibet, Vol. I-II. Wien 2013.
  17. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, 1949; Hugh E. Richardson, A Short History of Tibet. New York 1962.
  18. ^ László Karoly (14 November 2014). A Turkic Medical Treatise from Islamic Central Asia: A Critical Edition of a Seventeenth-Century Chagatay Work by Subḥān Qulï Khan. BRILL. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-90-04-28498-2.
  19. ^ Orvostörténeti Közlemények: Communicationes de historia artis medicinae. Könyvtár. 2006. p. 52.
  20. ^ Nil Sarı; International Society of the History of Medicine (2005). Otuz Sekizinci Uluslararası Tıp Tarihi Kongresi Bildiri Kitabı, 1-6 Eylül 2002. Türk Tarih Kurumu. p. 845. ISBN 9789751618252.
  21. ^ Hall (1981), p. 972; Stokvis, Sultan (1888); Truhart (2003), p. 1228–9..
  22. ^ De Graaf & Pigeaud (1974), p. 179–84.
  23. ^ a b c d Stokvis (1888); Sulendraningrat (1985); Sunardjo (1996), p. 81.
  24. ^ Sutherland (1973–1974).
  25. ^ Nagtegaal (1995); Werdisastra (1996).
  26. ^ Nagtegaal (1996); Sutherland (1973–1974).
  27. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2008-12-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ Coolhaas, W.Ph. (1923) "Kronijk van het rijk Batjan", Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 63.
  29. ^ The pedigree and chronology of the sultans is only partly known; see Schurhammer, F. (1973–1982) Francis Xavier; His Life, His Times, Vol. I–IV. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute; Jacobs, Hubert (1974–1984) Documenta Malucensia, Vol. I–III. Rome: Jesuit Historical Society; Fraassen, c.van (1987) Ternate, de Molukken en de Indonesische Archipel. Leiden: Leiden University (PhD Thesis).
  30. ^ Katoppo, Elvianus (1957) Nuku, Sulthan Sadul Djehad Muhammad el Mabus Amirudin Sjah, Kaitjili Paparangan, Sulthan Tidore. Kilatmadju Bina Budhaja; Widjojo, Muridan (2009) The revolt of Prince Nuku: Cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c.1780–1810. Leiden: Brill. The exact genealogy of the rulers before the mid-17th century is not known by the local historical tradition; for the known details, see Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill.
  31. ^ Barta 1994, p. 296.
  32. ^ a b Barta 1994, p. 297.
  33. ^ Szegedi 2009, p. 101.
  34. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 101-102.
  35. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 263., 293-297.
  36. ^ Markó 2000, p. 120.
  37. ^ [1]
  38. ^ Markó 2000, p. 97.
  39. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 104-105.
  40. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 293., 298-299.
  41. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 118-119.
  42. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 304-305.
  43. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 98-99.
  44. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 305-309.
  45. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 102-103.
  46. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 314-315., 321-324.
  47. ^ a b Markó 2000, p. 104.
  48. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 314-315., 325-326.
  49. ^ Deák 2009, pp. 82-83., 85., 88., 93.
  50. ^ Barta 1994, p. 326.
  51. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 115-117.
  52. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 117-118.
  53. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 352., 356.
  54. ^ Markó 2000, p. 113.
  55. ^ Markó 2000, p. 119.
  56. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 96-97.
  57. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 110-111.
  58. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 94-95.
  59. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 120-122.
  60. ^ Markó 2000, p. 95.
  61. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 113-115.
  62. ^ "Archbishop Antonio Pérez, O.S.B." Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved August 27, 2016
  63. ^ Azerbaijani Soviet Encyclopedia, Baku, 1983, vol. 7, p. 176