# General Dirichlet series

In the field of mathematical analysis, a **general Dirichlet series** is an infinite series that takes the form of

where , are complex numbers and is a strictly increasing sequence of nonnegative real numbers that tends to infinity.

A simple observation shows that an 'ordinary' Dirichlet series

is obtained by substituting while a power series

is obtained when .

## Fundamental theorems[edit]

If a Dirichlet series is convergent at , then it is uniformly convergent in the domain

and convergent for any where .

There are now three possibilities regarding the convergence of a Dirichlet series, i.e. it may converge for all, for none or for some values of *s*. In the latter case, there exist a such that the series is convergent for and divergent for . By convention, if the series converges nowhere and if the series converges everywhere on the complex plane.

## Abscissa of convergence[edit]

The **abscissa of convergence** of a Dirichlet series can be defined as above. Another equivalent definition is

The line is called the **line of convergence**. The **half-plane of convergence** is defined as

The abscissa, line and half-plane of convergence of a Dirichlet series are analogous to radius, boundary and disk of convergence of a power series.

On the line of convergence, the question of convergence remains open as in the case of power series. However, if a Dirichlet series converges and diverges at different points on the same vertical line, then this line must be the line of convergence. The proof is implicit in the definition of abscissa of convergence. An example would be the series

which converges at (alternating harmonic series) and diverges at (harmonic series). Thus, is the line of convergence.

Suppose that a Dirichlet series does not converge at , then it is clear that and diverges. On the other hand, if a Dirichlet series converges at , then and converges. Thus, there are two formulas to compute , depending on the convergence of which can be determined by various convergence tests. These formulas are similar to the Cauchy–Hadamard theorem for the radius of convergence of a power series.

If is divergent, i.e. , then is given by

If is convergent, i.e. , then is given by

## Abscissa of absolute convergence[edit]

A Dirichlet series is absolutely convergent if the series

is convergent. As usual, an absolutely convergent Dirichlet series is convergent, but the converse is not always true.

If a Dirichlet series is absolutely convergent at , then it is absolutely convergent for all *s* where . A Dirichlet series may converge absolutely for all, for no or for some values of *s*. In the latter case, there exist a such that the series converges absolutely for and converges non-absolutely for .

The **abscissa of absolute convergence** can be defined as above, or equivalently as

The **line** and **half-plane of absolute convergence** can be defined similarly. There are also two formulas to compute .

If is divergent, then is given by

If is convergent, then is given by

In general, the abscissa of convergence does not coincide with abscissa of absolute convergence. Thus, there might be a strip between the line of convergence and absolute convergence where a Dirichlet series is conditionally convergent. The width of this strip is given by

In the case where *L* = 0, then

All the formulas provided so far still hold true for 'ordinary' Dirichlet series by substituting .

## Other abscissas of convergence[edit]

It is possible to consider other abscissas of convergence for a Dirichlet series. The **abscissa of bounded convergence** is given by

while the **abscissa of uniform convergence** is given by

These abscissas are related to the abscissa of convergence and of absolute convergence by the formulas

,

and a remarkable theorem of Bohr in fact shows that for any ordinary Dirichlet series where (i.e. Dirichlet series of the form ) , and ^{[1]} Bohnenblust and Hille subsequently showed that for every number there are Dirichlet series for which ^{[2]}

A formula for the abscissa of uniform convergence for the general Dirichlet series is given as follows: for any , let , then ^{[3]}

## Analytic functions[edit]

A function represented by a Dirichlet series

is analytic on the half-plane of convergence. Moreover, for

## Further generalizations[edit]

A Dirichlet series can be further generalized to the multi-variable case where , *k* = 2, 3, 4,..., or complex variable case where , *m* = 1, 2, 3,...

## References[edit]

**^**McCarthy, John E. (2018). "Dirichlet Series" (PDF).**^**Bohnenblust & Hille (1931). "On the Absolute Convergence of Dirichlet Series".*Annals of Mathematics*.**32**(3): 600–622. doi:10.2307/1968255. JSTOR 1968255.**^**"Dirichlet series - distance between σu and σc".*StackExchange*. Retrieved 26 June 2020.

- G. H. Hardy, and M. Riesz,
*The general theory of Dirichlet's series*, Cambridge University Press, first edition, 1915. - E. C. Titchmarsh,
*The theory of functions*, Oxford University Press, second edition, 1939. - Tom Apostol,
*Modular functions and Dirichlet series in number theory*, Springer, second edition, 1990. - A.F. Leont'ev,
*Entire functions and series of exponentials*(in Russian), Nauka, first edition, 1982. - A.I. Markushevich,
*Theory of functions of a complex variables*(translated from Russian), Chelsea Publishing Company, second edition, 1977. - J.-P. Serre,
*A Course in Arithmetic*, Springer-Verlag, fifth edition, 1973. - John E. McCarthy,
*Dirichlet Series*, 2018. - H. F. Bohnenblust and Einar Hille,
*On the Absolute Convergence of Dirichlet Series*, Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Jul., 1931), pp. 600-622.

## External links[edit]

- "Dirichlet series".
*PlanetMath*. - "Dirichlet series",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, EMS Press, 2001 [1994]